Armadillo Aerospace’s Latest Competition Attempt Fails

With the moon visible overhead, Armadillo Aerospace unsuccessfully attempted to win the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge at the Wirefly X PRIZE Cup this weekend at Holloman Air Force Base. The only competitor of nine ready to go for the event, Armadillo Aerospace, led by John Carmack of Doom and Quake fame, experienced both successes and failures during multiple launch attempts. While able to rise 50 meters from the launch pad, move laterally 50 meters, and land after staying aloft at least 90 seconds, the teams vehicle was not able to repeat this feat to return to the launch pad within two and a half hours as required by competition rules. Earlier failures included thrust vectoring problems due to a crack in the vehicle’s engine and an aborted launch soon after liftoff. The team was able to repair some damage rapidly to try again later, but their final attempt on Sunday ended in disaster, with flames engulfing the vehicle immediately after the launch sequence began.

Armadillo Aerospace, a private company started by Doom and Quake game developer John Carmack, has been the leading contender for the prize that is intended to accelerate techniques and innovations for future lunar landers. The other eight registrants were not ready by the time of the event to compete. At stake is $350,000 in prize money for first place in level one of the competition. Level two will award a larger prize but requires 180 seconds aloft over rough terrain. Peter Diamandis, Chairman and CEO of the X PRIZE Foundation, explained to the audience that the competition’s return flight requirement is meant to demonstrate reusability of the vehicle within a short amount of time by a small team of technicians. This contrasts with shuttle launches that require many people, several months, and approximately US$1,000,000,000 in costs for turnaround.

The failure by Armadillo Aerospace to walk away with the prize opens up the competition to other teams during the 2008 X PRIZE Cup. According to a representative for the Speed Up team, they only need a few more months to make “Laramie Rose,” their entry vehicle, ready for competition.

X PRIZE Cup – Table of Contents

A race to space is shaping up in the private industry and once a year the public is invited to see the latest breakthroughs, vehicles, and competitions intended to accelerate this progress. The Wirefly X PRIZE Cup was held October 26 through 28 at the Holloman Air Force Base near Alamogordo, New Mexico, USA. Combined with the annual Holloman Air and Space Expo, the event featured a single competitor attempt to win the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge, exhibits, flyovers, and, perhaps, a brief lull in space enthusiasm.

HiRISE Releases False Color Images of Potential MSL Landing Sites

PSP_003086_2015 - Color Image of Nili Fossae Trough, Candidate MSL Landing Site

Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona – “PSP_003086_2015: Color Image of Nili Fossae Trough, Candidate MSL Landing Site

[Disclaimer: Richard Leis, Jr. is an Operations Specialist for HiRISE.]

The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) team today released a slew of new false color images of the surface of Mars to the public, the culmination of many months of software and automation development. Color products are now expected to be released at regular intervals, matching the previous release rate of black and white images. The images selected are of potential Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing sites, the upcoming rover mission planned for launch in 2009. Now that these images have been released, researchers suggesting landing sites for the mission will have new data to work with while developing their proposals.

Creating useful color products from HiRISE data has proven to be a difficult task that has involved many people. Sarah Mattson applied her continuing University of Arizona mathematics education to help develop algorithms for registering and stitching the various color products together, based on manual procedures developed by HiRISE Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen. Guy McArthur, a software developer for HiRISE, created a series of automated “pipelines” for turning calibrated image products into beautiful final color products. Eric Eliason, HiRISE Operations Center (HiROC) Manager oversaw the software development effort and participated in validation efforts. Operations Specialist Táhirih Motazedian reprocessed MSL image data through calibration, geometry, and the new color pipelines, after also conducting thorough testing of the pipelines, all while managing the HiROC systems resources that are pushed to their limits during such intense reprocessing efforts. Student Validators Alaina de Jong and Bryan Cardwell raced to validate new color products fresh out of the pipelines to ensure they were ready for today’s scheduled public release. Database Manager Rod Heyd ensured the database and procedures for releasing products were updated to handle the new color products. Finally, Website Guru Yisrael Espinoza updated the web backend and public site to include color images in an attractive and user-friendly way.

PSP_004052_2045 - Layers Exposed in Crater Near Mawrth Vallis

Image Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona – PSP_004052_2045: Layers Exposed in Crater Near Mawrth Vallis

The HiRISE camera is currently in orbit around Mars on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The camera is returning the highest resolution images of the surface ever taken from Mars orbit, with images reaching resolutions of nearly 25 centimeters per pixel. This equates to objects about one meter in size on the surface of Mars, since the human eye needs about three or four pixels to pick out an object in an image. The new color images are in enhanced and false color. Everyone knows well that the surface of Mars is a study in red, so choosing color filters that can pull out subtle differences between compositions was a priority when developing the camera. Red, near infrared, and blue-green filters down the center of the instrument’s CCD array create a false color swath in HiRISE images of about 1.2 kilometers in width. The remaining red CCDs create a black and white image 6 kilometers across.

The prospective landing sites targeted by HiRISE include materials like clays, sulfates, and other materials with high water content. MSL is expected to explore just such a location to determine the past and current role of water on Mars and whether or not the environment ever supported microbial life.

More Information

No Graveyard

Alcor sign at facility in Scottsdale, AZ, USA

Image Credit: Simone Syed – Alcor sign at facility in Scottsdale, AZ, USA

[Alcor Conference – Table of Contents]

[Updated Friday, October 02, 2009 for clarity and to correct grammatical and spelling errors. Disclosure: Richard Leis is currently an Alcor customer; he was not at the time he originally wrote this article.]

The graveyard is a solemn place. Here the human tradition is to bury the dead remains of loved ones in expensive coffins at relatively shallow depths under soil, fading flowers, and memories. Family and friends find comfort where they can, maybe in church, maybe in regular visits to the grave. Some are certain that a next life follows this life and so for many the graveyard is part of death traditions passed down for generations.

Alcor is no graveyard.

On a warm Sunday in October 2007, the Alcor Life Extension Foundation opened its facility in Scottsdale, Arizona to visitors, capping a weekend of talks during the 7th Alcor Conference. Out in the parking lot was a BBQ: shredded meat on rolls, vegetarian lasagna, salad dripping with dressing, and peach cobbler. Speakers and attendees from the conference, Alcor staff, Alcor customers, family and friends gathered around tables for pleasant discussion, networking, and catching up. Alcor is not a solemn place. Rather it seemed to be a very happy place, despite the clinically dead hanging out just inside the Alcor facility.

Alcor is a cryonics company, where cryogenics technology is being used to store the remains of members (and a few of the member’s pets). Members of Alcor sign up for expensive services that will not kick in until they die. At that time, just as soon as they have been legally pronounced dead, Alcor will begin cryopreservation procedures. They will flush most of the water out of the body and replace it with cryoprotectants. After other preparations, the body will be stored in huge dewars of liquid nitrogen. Someday, Alcor members hope, technology will advance so far that their cryopreserved bodies will be resurrected.

Vitrification is a process somewhat like freezing, but without the nasty side effects. To freeze something is to introduce water ice crystals, dangerous daggers that wreak havoc on delicate biological material. A strawberry placed in a freezer might at first look beautiful when pulled out frozen, but let it thaw and what you have left will be a mushy remnant. Vitrification of biological material minimizes ice crystals. Water is removed, replaced with compounds that turn into a glass-like, smooth substance at low temperatures.

There is nothing fringe about cryogenics or the vitrification process; medicine has been revolutionized by the ability to store biological matter, including organs, at low temperature. However, cryonics – the application of cryogenics technology to vitrify human (and animal) bodies and brains – is controversial.  The cells of the body are encased inside and out, bringing to a near standstill the chemical reactions that race forward unchecked when we die. This suggests to advocates of cryonics that bodies preserved in this way might be thawed, repaired, and brought back to life by future scientists wielding advanced technologies. Alcor bluntly admits in their marketing literature and conferences, however, that this is a long shot. What they are selling – and what consumers are buying – is that very minuscule but potentially non-zero chance of being revived in the future, healthy again and full of life. Even this minute chance is something burial and cremation cannot offer, and so some consumers find cryonics quite appealing as a third option. From their perspective, they are certainly no worse off if it turns out recovery from cryopreservation is impossible.

Inside the Alcor facility is the gear for modern cryopreservation. Open house attendees on that day signed up for tours of the facility, the schedule spread out over the course of an afternoon to allow time for everyone to eat and mingle.  The first stop on the tour was a small room. In this room was the future.

Research on Rats

Alcor makes money by charging monthly membership fees, accepting donations, and being the beneficiary of the insurance policies most members use to pay for cryopreservation upon their death. With around 800 members, the company makes just enough to struggle with rising costs for facility operations and services that can begin at the member’s bedside even before legal death. In recent years Alcor has stabilized financially but they recognize that their best bet for new paying members rests with proving scientifically some of the claims of cryonics. Therefore Alcor is investing in a new animal model to use for cryopreservation and revival research.

The company used to experiment on dogs. As expenses have increased and animal rights activists have sought more stringent guidelines regarding research animals, the dog model has become difficult to maintain. Using rats instead may provide a host of benefits, though all animal models include some difficulties. There is currently little regulation of rats used as laboratory models. However, Alcor fully expects activists to begin targeting the use of rodents in the near future. They have therefore decided to abide by the same regulation as dogs. This means unnecessary paperwork and procedures, good practice for when such logistics are required.

The first room on the tour will house this research future.  A cardiopulmonary bypass apparatus, many times smaller than similar equipment used for larger animals and humans, sits at the center of the room. Some of it has been custom built, and Alcor research associate Chana de Wolf has been practicing with this new equipment to prepare for future work on rats. There is a small cooling stage where a rat will be connected to the “Circuit”, a ring of devices like the pump and the oxygenator that act as a mechanical heart and lungs, respectively. Also attached is the “chiller” for controlling fluid temperatures. Blood will be washed out of the rat’s body with a fluid consisting of blood and various concentrations of cryopreservants and other compounds.  Researcher using the rat model hope it will lead to improved cryopreservants, more effective concentrations, improved equipment and techniques, and, perhaps even the first animal revived after lengthy cryopreservation. For now, the laboratory is still being equipped with the necessary tools; research has not yet begun.

Improving Cryopreservation

While planning to ramp up their research activities, Alcor’s primary task remains the cryopreservation of paying members. The next room on the tour is the testing site for new equipment that will automate procedures that were previously manual and time-consuming. A contractor to Alcor showed off the latest “patient pod”, an enclosed table in which the member’s body is placed upon arrival at the facility. Liquid nitrogen vapor is pumped into the pod to continue the cooling down process that began out in the field prior to the body being transported to Alcor. The body’s water is removed and replaced with chemicals that can be toxic to cells if introduced at too high a temperature.  A fine balance between temperature, pressure and percent concentration of cryoprotectants will be maintained automatically by new monitoring software and equipment, replacing what use to be manual “eye-balling.” Should something go wrong, the software will immediate start appropriate countermeasures.

The new table helps consolidate steps that could previously lead to temperature increases that are not nominal, threatening the overall effectiveness of the cryopreservation. After all, for cryonics to work, further damage to the member’s body must be minimized. Presumably this care now will lead to an easier revival in the future. The new table manages a temperature drop to -100 degrees Celsius, thus cutting out a previous step that required the body be removed from the pod and onto other equipment in another room.

Improving Stabilization and Transport

As mentioned previously, there are procedures that begin prior to the arrival of a member’s body at Alcor’s Scottsdale facility. Several volunteer field technicians located around the country await that fateful call: a member has just been pronounced legally dead, or legal death is imminent. The technicians travel to the patient’s location to begin the necessary paperwork, interact with family and medical personnel, and initiate cryopreservation procedures. All of this is done as quickly as possible to minimize the brain and body damage as decomposition sets in.

Currently these technicians must carry with them seven large kits full of tools, equipment, and chemicals. The number of kits can lead to difficulties and delays when traveling, and requires significant effort to tote around. Tanya Jones – the COO of Alcor – and her team have revisited the contents of these kits to streamline them to just three. Content like freezer bags for ice, walkie talkies, batteries, medical tools, gloves, and infusion medications have been considered in detail to help minimize what needs to be included in these kits.

When deployed in the field, these kits will include a new portable ice bath that is lighter and easier to setup than the current model, while improving insulation during transport with the use of aerogel. The design is expected to accommodate new equipment that can be directly attached to the ice bath frame to maintain circulation in the body during transport, an important consideration when planning to introduce cryopreservants into the body.

Finally, a new portable perfusion system has been developed that significantly reduces the previous system’s steep learning curve. Improved with automated monitoring equipment and debubbling circuit technology, the new system now requires only two connections: one to a cold water source followed by one to the patient. This greatly simplifies the steps technicians need to take. The new system washes out the patient’s blood and begins the initial infusion of cryoprotectants. One significant size and weight reduction has been with the computer controller, a device that had not been updated since the middle of last decade.

The next room we visited was the operating room, where the current patient table and equipment reside. The heart bypass machine circulates cooled cryoprotectants while Alcor staff continue the patient’s cryopreservation. This older equipment will be replaced when design and testing of the new equipment is completed. Testing is expected to begin later this year.

The Cryopreserved

The last stop in the tour was the patient care bay, the location of 76 people who have been cryopreserved since the first person – Dr. James H. Bedforf – was cryopreserved in 1967 in a dewar he designed himself. Family and volunteers maintained the dewar for the next twenty years until he was moved to Alcor. Today, five full-body cryopreserved members can fit head down in a modern dewar. Some members choose the less expensive service plan that preserves only their brain, within their head. Several of these neuropreservations fit in the center of the dewar between the full bodies.

The dewars are full of liquid nitrogen. Alcor maintains a bulk tank that holds a 4 month supply of liquid nitrogen. Liquid nitrogen can maintain its temperature at -196 degrees Celsius without power, so these dewars require no power source or backup, just the occasional automatic topping off from the bulk tank.

We did not enter the patient care bay directly but looked in through a large window. It is here that one immediately notices how Alcor is no graveyard. People speak at normal volume levels, sharing their passion for this technology and their hopes for revival after their own cryopreservation. A conference attendee from Australia finished his paperwork to become the latest member of Alcor while attendees from Quebec, Canada watched in delight. Some of the people in the tour were already signed up and happy to see the apparent effort by Alcor to continue improving cryonics technologies while preparing to mount new research efforts. Other visitors on the tour were new or prospective members seeing the technical side of cryonics for the first time. Alcor staff  leading the tours remained professional despite some visible annoyance at certain personalities and questions. The staff was knowledgeable and, like everyone else in attendance that day, noticeably passionate about what they do.

Whether or not cryonics works, to some people Alcor offers something coffins and cremation urns cannot. Those final resting places are traditional and they are also final. The dewars of Alcor, on the other hand, are shiny and metal, standing tall and cold, symbols of rapidly advancing technology and optimism about the future. Here at Alcor, death seems to have been reduced to a temporary legal and cultural existence. The cryopreserved patients wait for the right repair and recovery technologies to be developed. For cryonics proponents, there is such hope, optimism and steady progress here that Alcor can be no graveyard.

Alcor Conference – Table of Contents

Frontier Channel liveblogging from the 7th Alcor Conference:

Day 1

Day 2


Sputnik 1: 50 Years Later

[History] | [Commentary]

Plenty of space blogs, organizations, and media outlets are marked last Thursday as the 50 year anniversary of the first artificial satellite in Earth orbit, Sputnik 1. On October 04, 1957 Russia surprised the United States by demonstrating their technological prowess with the successful launch of Sputnik 1. The “artificial moon” did little more than beep:

[Audio file] Sputnik 1 Beeping

but it became the historic launching point for a space race between nations that would culminate with man on the moon.

It is difficult to put into context what Sputnik 1 really marked. We most certainly take space travel for granted now. Prior to October 04, 1957, the best humans could do was touch the edge of space with rockets. Sputnik 1 was fundamentally different, an artifact of mankind that entered, and remained in for three months, a frontier unexplored, by any life form that had ever existed in the billions of years of Earth history. 4,500,000,000 years after the formation of the Earth, perhaps 3,300,000,000 years after the first life forms arose on the planet’s surface, millions of years of primate evolution and tens of thousands of years of modern human development and civilization, we are only 50 years into a presence in outer space.

No other life form in Earth history is known to have directed, let alone created, artifacts like Sputnik 1. Humans alone demonstrate such technological capabilities. We alone can create an artifact that beeps in a near-vacuum to let its creators know it is still there and still functioning, and then find ourselves 50 years later dependent on constellations of much more capable devices that enable activities other life forms cannot even comprehend. Humanity abstracts, humanity acts, humanity adapts and humanity spreads into the great frontiers.

A common question asked in this age of robotic exploration 50 years after the first aluminum technological artifact entered Earth orbit is “Why should we send people into space?” That is the wrong question. The only question is “When?” We will walk again on the moon, and on Mars, and on a myriad other landscapes. Some of us will indeed make our home in space and on worlds other than Earth. We will spread out through the solar system and beyond. Humans will do these things because we repeatedly move forward despite our ramblings about “Why?” Many of us don’t ask why and we just do. A million people ask us why we are doing what we are doing and we simply continue to do. We organize conferences and protests, forge new laws and social constraints, debate for hours, hire politicians to continue the debate ad infinitum, write emotional commentary, and not a single one of these activities stop us from doing the things we keep asking ourselves “Why?” about. We just do, because that is what we do.

Is space too risky, too expensive? Yes. And we will move out into space nonetheless.

Sputnik 1 and technician

Image Credit: NASA/Asif A. Siddiqi – “Sputnik 1

Rumor: Artificial Life

Although the following news appears to have been confirmed by Craig Venter, it should be viewed as rumor until there is an official announcement. The Guardian is reporting that Venter and a team of scientists have created artificial life, in the form of an artificial chromosome that can make use of another organism’s cellular machinery for replication and metabolism, but will effectively be a new, artificial species. According to The Guardian an official announcement is “expected within weeks and could come as early as Monday.”

Source: The Guardian, “I am creating artificial life, declares US gene pioneer“, Saturday, October 06, 2007

Alcor Conference – Chris Heward

[Alcor Conference – Table of Contents]


Chris Heward discussed his work on the “Kronos Longitudinal Aging Study (KLAS)” as a measurement of human aging. KRONOS Science Laboratory is a research institution in Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Heward showed a graph of progress in life expectancy at birth and at 65. Life expectancy at birth has experienced obvious improvement, but not so for life expectancy at age 65. Looking at particular biomarkers of again, we follow a peak around age 20 with a downhill degeneration to death. Once measures of life expectancy can be developed, than potential interventions can be tested against these biomarkers for effectiveness.

Data is collect in a database based on a variety of tests. For most Kronos participants, this includes one or two data collection events. Longitudinal studies require repeat testing over many years.

One of the best known biochemical biomarkers Kronos has found for aging is DHEA-SO4. The lower the level, the older the patient. However, although a line has been drawn on a graph to show this, the individual results actually do not cluster very well. Kronos next compared biomarkers with each other, but found little correlation, suggesting aging is not just one underlying problem, but multiple.

Kronos’ approach to aging is to assess and prevent issues earlier than people are usually treated. They focus on the top killers, like cardiovascular disease. They look for oxidative stress, with the goal of providing high levels of protection and reducing damage.

Their latest findings suggest it is difficult to assess a person’s oxidative stress using only one biomarker. Damage is variable over different testing periods.

Kronos has conducted a study related to Alzheimer’s Disease, in an attempt to detect the disease early. Called the KRONOS-TGen AD Project, the experiment included 1000 participants with Alzheimer’s and 1000 participants as controls. They were able to find involved genes, but they believe there are more that remain to be found. This is expected to lead to a genetic test to look for Alzheimer’s susceptibility.

In another experiment, the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) was meant to follow up on findings that hormonal replacement therapy might provide no cardiovascular protection in women over time as previous studies had indicated and could instead increase the risk of other problems like breast cancer. However, Heward said the study was “botched” because the wrong demographic of women was chosen. Kronos’ new study should correct this problem and seek better information on what is going on.

Finally, Heward provided nutrition and health advice. He suggested being fit, but not too lean. He also suggested fish oil, especially for Americans, as an important supplement for decreasing cardiovascular risk. Exercise is also important, but there appears to be a wall around 80 years of age, in which exercise appears to have no further benefit.

Alcor Conference – Christine Peterson

[Alcor Conference – Table of Contents]

Christine Peterson presented “Good News, Bad News, Surprising News” about life extension. She now spends about half time studying life extension as an enthusiast.

She began by stating that terminology matters. Which terms are best: life extension, health extension, anti-aging, longevity, immortality, or permanent health?

Since we are made out of meat, we enjoy the pleasures of life, but we end up aging and dying. Life extension enthusiasts want a pill to extend life, but nothing like that exists now. Medical doctors, researchers, and the FDA are not interested in life extension, in addition to the overall challenges of the biology of aging and possible research into ways to extend healthy lifespan.

She surveyed quickly those for and against life extension, including Leon Kass, Bill Clinton, Aubrey de Grey, and others. There are soft and hard approaches to the problem, including SENS and nanotechnology, and eventually nanomedicine.

A list of things that will help to buy some time until radical life extension technologies are available:

  • stress reduction
  • physical risk reduction
  • mood improvement
  • sleep, in a very dark room,
  • Sex (quantity M, quality F)
  • Laughter
  • Biomarker testing
  • Calorie Restriction
    • 35 few calories than normal
  • Reducing inflammaging
    • decreasing inflammation by reducing visceral fat
    • dieting does not work
    • Slow way – we eat for pleasure
    • Treat value = yumminess x amount
    • Pleasure = qulaity x quantity
    • Keep treat value high
    • Increase yumminess – healthy treats all the time (nuts, cheese, fruit, chocolate, cheese popcord every day. Then I can be good with other foods
    • 100 cal/day for one lb/month loss; these tweaks are easy to find.
    • The bizarre way
    • Shangri-La Diet – not a diet
    • Flavorless calories before a meal
    • Trick to feel full. Alientation from food
    • Be gradual
  • Supplements
    • Supplements can do damage
    • You can create conflicts and overdo it
    • Therefore more testing is required
  • Movement: require fun
    • Math and science teachers in charge of gym class, to get rid of evil coaches
    • Don’t look at calorie/minute displays on exercise machines
    • 10,000 steps per day
    • Spend money on a personal trainer
  • Uploading – more radical and possible further into the future.
  • Biostasis (cryonics) – conserving structure – many of us will run out of time, so this is the backup plan.

Finally, Peterson noted that it is important to get life insurance, even if you are not planning to sign up for cryonics until later. Death can be unexpected, and cryonics remains a last option if other current life extension efforts do not work out.

Alcor Conference – Calvin Mercer

[Alcor Conference – Table of Contents]


Calvin Mercer asked “Cryonics and Religion: Friends or Foes?”  Cryonics, Mercer believes, will require support from more people than just scientists, including religious people.  How should cryogenics supporters present these ideas to religious people?

How the discussion will play out, according to Mercer, will include debates between liberal and conservative viewpoints, anthropocentric versus theocentric beliefs, materialism versus the supernatural, pragmatic versus dogmatic outlooks, and revisionists versus traditionalists.  This will show up as supporters and critics in the various Christian religions.

Mercer seeks to generate discussion about radical life extension among liberal religious people and someday among conservative religious people, starting with academics.  He provided two examples of success, including sessions at a conference and a book.

Liberal religious people are most concerned about issues of justice and fairness.  They worry that these technologies will not be available for everyone.  On the right are the conservatives, and Mercer said there are degrees of conservatism, but with common characteristics like belief in the supernatural and dogmatic thinking.

Mercer believes some conservatives will in fact embrace radical life extension.  They will be torn between their beliefs and their desire to get “being a good Christian” right to avoid going to Hell.

Christian faith includes the concept of the “miracle” of resurrection.  On the one hand there is resuscitation of the dead, like Lazarus. On the other there is transformation of the dead, like Jesus.  The dialog between radical life extentionists and religious people could be started around their ideas about “indefinite” lifespans and “infinite” existence, respectively.


I would not expect an Alcor Conference talk about “Cryonics and Unicorns.”  I would not expect talks about “Cryonics and Astrology,” “Cryonics and Baseball Players,” or “Cryonics and Intelligent Design.”  However, I do understand that the majority of people are religious or spiritual.  Mercer presented this talk as an academic, rather than a theologist.